考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享
歌者与猫 2019-05-14     16:26 来源: 来自互联网
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  根据AP考试大纲,AP人文地理可以分为7个主题

  1.Geography: Its nature and perspectives

  地理:性质及视角

  2.Population and migration

  人口及迁移

  3.Cultural patterns and processes

  文化模式及进程

  4.Political organization of space

  空间政治组织

  5.Agriculture ,food production and rural land use

  农业、粮食生产及农业用地

  6.Industrialization and economic development

  工业化及经济发展

  7.Cities and urban land use

  城市及城市用地

  下面详细的介绍一下每个主题的重难点。

  1.Geography: Its nature and perspectives

  本章节主要是对地理学一些基本概念、模式、元素的掌握理解。

  特别注重利用地理信息解释spatial relationships and human–environment interaction.

  (1) Geography的发展历史,注意代表性的人物

  *Anaximander is the first person credited with making a map of Mediterranean at that time.

  *Eratosthenes: Performed a remarkably accurate computation of Earth’s circumference 99.5%.“father of geography”。

  *EnvironmentalDeterminism: Physical environment dictates the social environment

  *Possibilism: Humans have the ability to adjust to the environment

  *现在地理信息技术:

  geographic information systems(GIS), satellite navigation systems (e.g., global positioning system -GPS),remote sensing, and online mapping and visualization

  (2)地图Maps

  *Scale:The relationship to a feature’ssize on a map to its actual size on earth.

  Fractional Scale - numerical ratio1:24,000

  Written Scale - description in words “1inch equals 1 mile”

  Graphic Scale- bar line showingdistance

  *Mapstypes: reference maps (physical and political maps) and thematic maps (choropleth, dot, graduated symbol, isoline, cartogram)

  Reference Maps:Regular mapsshowing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads

  Thematic Maps: Maps highlightinga particular feature or a single variable such as temperature, city, size, oracreage in potatoes (Gives extra information)_population

  Isoline Maps: Show lines thatconnect points of equal value .Isolines are on topographic maps

  Choropleth Maps: Show the levelof some variable within predefined regions, such as counties, states, orcountries

  Dot Maps: Use a dot to representthe occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in agiven area.

  Graduated symbol:size of circleconveys number of occurrences of event in an area

  Cartogram: A type of thematic mapthat transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value forsome type of data is represented by the largest relative area

  *失真Distortion:shape, distance,relative size, and direction

  *Mercatorprojection墨卡托投影:A true conformal cylindrical map projection,方向正确,landmasses at thepoles appear oversized.

  (3)地理的五个主题

  *Location:

  Relative location相对:The position of a place relativeto the places around it

  Absolute location绝对:The exact position of an objector place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system

  *Place:Human Characteristics &Physical Characteristics

  *Human-EnvironmentalInteraction: 适应环境、依赖环境、改变环境

  *Movement:People:Goods;Ideas

  *Regions

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  (4)传播扩散Diffusion

  *Relocation Diffusion: through physical movement of people from one place to another. Doesnot have to grow in numbers. -AIDS

  *Expansion Diffusion: among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.Involves growing numbers.

  Hierarchical Diffusion:The spread of afeature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to otherpeople or places. - grunge music.

  Contagious Diffusion:The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. -influenza (flu)。

  Stimulus Diffusion:The spread of an underlying principle or thought process, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. - Apple computers/Martin Luther King Jr. (he is dead but histhought process still lives on)。

  (5)Distribution:threetypes-density, concentration, pattern

  *Density:The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. 数量

  Arithmetic Density: The total number ofpeople divided by the total land area

  Physiological Density: The total number ofpeople divided by all arable land (farmland)

  Agricultural Density: The totalnumber of farmers (and family) divided by all arable land

  *Concentration:The spread of something over a given area (clustered or dispersed)

  *Pattern:The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area

  (6)时区Time Zone

  *Greenwich Mean Time-The time at the prime meridian本初子午线

  *Internationa lDate Line-180 degrees from Prime Meridian-24 hours

  *Tellingtime from longitude-every 15 degrees.From Prime Meridian going west loose 1hour/15 degrees-east gain 1 hour/15 degrees.

  2.Populationand migration

  本章节主要是关于人口的地理组织形式,可以总结为三个部分

  人口的地理学分析、人口的增减、移民

  要点如下:

  (1)人口分布模式及特征

  *Populationdistribution

  四大人口密集区域:East Asia20%;South Asia20%;Southeast Asia最多;WesternEurope

  人口稀少区域:Dry Lands;Wet Lands;Cold lands;High lands

  *Populationdensity: arithmetic, physiological, and agricultural

  Arithmetic density:The number of peopleliving in a given unit area.

  Physiologic density:A ratio of human population to the area of cropland, used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture.

  *Populationpyramids:

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  (2)人口随着时间空间的增减

  *Demographic factors that determine population growth and decline are fertility, mortality,and migration.

  Fertility: TFR(total fertilityrate)the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49)。

  Mortality: 分为the infant mortality rate(IMR)and life expectancy.

  A.IMR-the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births.

  B.Life expectancy-the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels

  *衡量人口增减的指数:Doubling time;Total fertilityrate;Infant mortality rate;Life expectancy

  *人口增减原因:

  Crude birth rate (CBR)- The total number oflive births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

  Crude death rate (CDR)- total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

  Natural increase rate (NIR)-一年人口增长率。 a country’s growth rate excludes migration

  *Demographic Transition:4个阶段

  Stage 1: Low Growth没有国家处于此阶段

  Stage 2: High Growth

  Stage 3: Moderate Growth

  Stage 4: Low Growth 出现ZPG(零增长TFR=2.1)

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  *EpidemiologicTransition:Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.

  *马尔萨斯理论Malthusian theory1798《An Essay on the Principle ofPopulation》:世界将灭亡由于over population, starvation, and disease.

  *Neo-Malthusians:theamount of farmland is decreasing while the population is increasing

  (3)移民、难民

  *移民的原因:主要由于经济原因,还有文化、环境原因

  Push factor: when people are forced out of an area (Ex: Hurricane Katrinadestroyed many peoples’ houses, so they were forced to move somewhere else.)

  Pull factor: when people desireto move into a new location (Ex: Better job openingin a new area, a good place to retire. Usually promises a better situation than the present one.)

  A.Economic Push and Pull Factors:

  - Pull:People emigrate to places with better job opportunities. They will also emigrate because of better natural resources. Metal and coal deposits might attract miners. A brand new industry or store could attract technicians, scientists, engineers, or otherworkers.

  - Push:When a industry goes bankrupt, workers will lose their jobs and might be forced to move to adifferent area because of a job opportunity.

  B.Cultural Push and Pull Factors:

  -2个主要 push factors are slavery andpolitical instability. Millions of people were captured and shipped to many different countries as prisoners or slaves. (People called refugees are forced to migrate form their countries because of fear of persecution because of their race, nationality, religion, or political opinion.)

  -Pull: people migrate for especially the lure of freedom.(People are attracted to democratic countriesthat encourage individual choice in education, career, and a place ofresidence.)

  C.Environmental Push and Pull Factors:

  -Pull: people are attracted to areas with warm climates, mountainsides, and seasides.

  -Push: certain physical conditions cause people to move to different areas like too much or too littlewater in an area can force people to move. Also an area that is storm prone canforce people to migrate.

  *国际国内移民International & Internal Migration

  ①International Migration(2种)- The permanent movement from onecountry to another.非洲到澳洲

  A.Voluntary migration- implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements.

  B.Forced migration- the migranthas been compelled to move by cultural factors.

  (Economic push and pull factorsusually induce voluntary migration. Whereas cultural factors usually compelforced migration)

  ②Internal Migration(2种)- Permanent movement within aparticular country.-Georgia to California

  A.Interregional migration-movement from one region of a country to another.

  Rust Belt:The northern industrialstates of the United States, including Ohio,Michigan, and Pennsylvania, inwhich heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s,1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor wascheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate(美国北部,重工业衰落失去经济基础)

  Sun Belt :U.S. region, mostlycomprised of southeastern and southwestern states,which has grown most dramatically since World War II

  B.Intraregional migration-movement within on region

  3.Culturalpatterns and processes

  本章节主要是文化方面,重点是了解文化的模式和文化发展的差异,以及与人类活动之间的关系。

  总的来说可以分为两大方面:一是文化的概念,二是不同地区的文化差异。

  (1)文化概念

  *定义:Culture is comprised of the shared practices, technologies, attitudes, and behaviors transmitted by asociety

  *特质:Cultural traits are individual elements of culture and include such things as food preferences, architecture,and land use.

  *文化扩散:Acculturation, assimilation, and multiculturalism are shaped by the diffusion of culture

  Acculturation:The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another

  Multicultural:Having to do with many cultures

  (2)文化的差异(宗教、语言、种族)

  *PopularCulture: Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics .

  起源:经济发达地区, especially in North America,

  Western Europe, and Japan.urban\changeable\influenced by media.伴随扩散

  *Folk Culture: Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.起源:often have anonymous hearths,originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators.

  *Language

  Language patterns and distributions can berepresented on maps, charts, and language trees

  Lingua franca: An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  *Religion:Universalizing Religion (expansion and relocation diffusion) & EthnicReligion (relocation diffusion)

  Religious patterns and distributions can be represented on maps and charts

  Universalizing Religion: Areligion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in aparticular location: – Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

  -Christianity: Origin Israel;2 billion adherents;Known as Christians;Mainly in Western Hemisphere and Europe;Foundation based on the Ten Commandments;Major branches- Catholics(50%)。 Protestants (25%), Eastern Orthodox (10%)

  -Islam: Origin Saudi Arabia;1.3billion adherents;Known as Muslims;Foundation based on the Five Pillars;Majorbranches- Sunnis (83%), Shiites (16%), Kurds (1%)

  -Buddhism:Origin NEIndia/Nepal;370 million adherents;Known as Buddhists;Mainly in China and SEAsia;Foundation based on the Four Noble Truths;Major branches- Mahayanists(56%), Theravadistis (38%), Tantrayanists (8%)

  Ethnic Religion: A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in whichits adherents are concentrated-Hinduism and Judaism

  -Hinduism: Origin India/Pakistan;800 million adherents (3rd largest overall);97% live in India(80% of India’s pop.);Believe in several gods Brahma being the main one;Followthe Caste System ;Believe in Karma and Reincarnation

  -Judaism: Origin Israel ;14million adherents;Mainly clustered in Israel and the US ;Also prevent in formerUSSR (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania) ;Have similar roots as Christianityand Islam

  *Ethnicity

  Ethnicity:Refers to a group ofpeople who share a common identity

  Race:A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types,genetic code patterns orgenetically inherited characteristics

  美国种族分布AfricanAmerican-(13%) Southeast ; Hispanic American-(13%) Southwest ; AsianAmerican-(4%) West ; American Indian (Native American)-(1%) Southwest and Plains States

  4.Political organization of space

  本章节主要涉及不同规模领土的政治组织,了解现代政治版图、空间政治模式和全球化对领土权利的影响。

  (1)政治地理学

  *Political entities include nations, states, nation-states, stateless nations,multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions

  *五种国家形态State morphology

  Compact State-Poland

  Fragmented State- Malaysia

  Elongated State- Chile

  Prorupted State- Thailand

  Perforated State-South Africasurrounds Lesotho

  (2)空间政治模式:boundaries & governance

  *Boundaries:Geometric boundaries、Physical boundaries、Ethnographic or cultural boundaries

  *Governance: unitary states (centralized government-UK) &federal states-US

  *Politicalpower 三个理论 heartland, rimland,and organic theories

  Heartland theory:Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in theheart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world

  Rimland theory Nicholas Spykman’stheory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide thebase for world conquest

  Organic theory :The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age

  (3)全球化

  *Supranationalism is expressed in the creation of multinational organizations (e.g., UN, NATO,EU, ASEAN, NAFTA)

  *Some forces that may lead to devolution of states include physical geography, ethnic separatism, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism

  *Devolutionis expressed in the fragmentation of states into autonomous regions (e.g.,Nunavut, Native American reservations), subnational political–territorial units(e.g., Spain, Belgium, Canada), or Balkanization (e.g., former Yugoslavia, theCaucasus)

  *Centrifugalforces :Forces that break up a state

  *Centripetalforces:Forces that tend to unite a state

  5.Agriculture ,food production and rural land use

  本章节内容主要分为农业的起源和发展、主要的农业区域、以范杜能农业区域为代表的土地利用。

  (1)Agricultural Hearths

  *FertileCrescent- historical region watered by the Nile, Jordan, Euphrates, and TigrisRivers.

  *Ethiopia(horn of Africa)-mainly hunters and gatherers.

  *NileValley- along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt.

  *China-the Great Yellow River (Huang He)

  *Southeast Asia- Prior to agriculture, hunting and gathering sufficed to proved food inSoutheast Asia.

  *Mesoamerica-the most important Mesoamerican agriculture is maize

  (2)三次农业革命

  *1st:12,000yrs ago, Neolithic era;Fertile Crescent, China, North Africa, Southeast Asia,and Latin America ; Accompanied by a modest population explosion;Domestication- animals (about 40 species today) occurred after people became more sedentary

  *2nd:1871-1914 Resulted from the Industrial Revolution- produced new technology that helped with the agricultural progress a lot (Ex. tractor, cotton gin);The development of agricultureled to widespread alteration of the natural environment

  *3rd:1960to present ;Aka Green Revolution- benefiting LDC’s by introduction and production of fertilizers and pesticides into LDC’s ;Based on higher yielding strains using genetic engineering

  (3)主要农业区域形态Subsistence farming &Commercial farming

  *Subsistencefarming:Shifting Cultivation(slash and burnagriculture);Croprotation;Pastoral Nomadism;Intensive Subsistence Agriculture; Intertillage

  *Commercial farming:获得利润,利用基因工程,所有奶制品

  (4)范杜能模型The Von Thunen Model:1826

  解释农业用地,强调运费

  The black dot represents a city

  1(white)- dairy and market gardening

  2(green)- forest for fuel

  3(yellow)- grains and field crops

  4(red)- ranching

  Darkgreen=wilderness where agriculture is not profitable

  *美国

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  (5)农产品消费现状带来的变化

  *Agricultural innovations (e.g., biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, organicfarming, aquaculture) 与环境、文化、健康之间的问题

  *环境问题 sustainability, soil degradation,reduction in biodiversity, overgrazing, river and aquifer depletion, animal wastes, and extensive fertilizer and pesticide use

  *女性角色的转变food gathering, farming, managingagribusiness

  6.Industrialization and economic development

  本章节的内容可以分为两部分,一是工业化的发展和扩散,二是对经济、资源的影响。

  (1)

  The Industrial Revolution-Started in the north of the UK around 1750

  (2)Alfred Weber’s model韦伯模型

  describe the optimal location ofa manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor,and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration.

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

  (3)4大主要工业区域

  *The northeastern portion of the United Statesand the southeastern portion of Canada

  (New England,The Middle Atlantic,The Eastern Great Lakes,The Western Great Lakes,The South)

  *Western Russia and the Ukraine

  *Centraland Western Europe(GreatBritain,Germany,France,Ireland)

  *East Asia, including China and Japan

  (4)经济

  *Economic Activities

  *衡量发展的因数

  Human Development Index (HDI)

  Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)

  Economic Data Indicators:Gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP) ;Economic Sectors (primary,secondary,tertiary);Expendable Income;Technology;Raw Materials

  Demographic Statistics:Gender balance

  *发展理论

  1)Wallerstein’s WorldSystems Theory

  2)The Core-Periphery Model

  3)Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth:5个阶段in the 1950’s

  ① The traditional society: thecountry has not yet started process of development

  ② The preconditions for takeoff: the country initiates innovative economic activities

  ③ The take off:there is rapid growth in economic activities ④The drive to maturity: moderntechnology diffuses

  ⑤ The age of mass consumption: the economy shifts toconsumer goods

  *发展目标 Millennium Development Goals

  7.Citiesand urban land use

  本章节两大方面:城市的形态,比如定义、类型、等级、结构;城市的空间景观,注意在了解城市基本地理形态的基础上分析空间景观。

  (1)城市起源

  (2)城市等级Urban Hierarchies

  *Hierarchyby size:Unincorporated areas、Hamlets、Villages、Towns、Cities、Metropolises

  *Hierarchyby influence:world cities

  (3)美国城市4个阶段

  ①The sail-wagon period-1790~1830

  ②The iron-horse period-1830~1870

  ③The steel-rail period-1870~1920

  ④The auto-air-amenity period-1920~1960

  (4)城市规模分布模型

  *Rank-size rule

  *Primatecity

  *Christaller’s central place theory包含两个概念

  Threshold- the minimum market

  Range- the maximum distance(the amount of distance a person is willing to drive to the threshold)

  *The gravity model

  (4)城市内部结构模型

  *Burgess concentric-zone model

  *Hoyt sector model

  *Harris–Ullman multiple-nuclei model:

  *The galactic city model

  总结

  AP人文地理是从人口、文化、农业、工业、政治经济、城市等多角度来阐述人与地理之间的相互关系,要求同学在掌握基本地理学基础从多方面利用空间结构、模式来分析解决以上六个方面问题。

  选择考点遍布在每个章节的知识点中;大题一般以定义开始,例子结题,注意名词解释,模型理论的应用。

考前攻略:AP人文地理知识要点整理分享

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